Table of Contain
The type-J thermocouple is a temperature measurement instrument. It is a widely used and versatile solution for general-purpose applications and is extensively employed in various sectors, including industry, science, food, and medicine.
The J-type thermocouple belongs to the category of base metal thermocouples, as it is composed of common materials. In fact, its structure includes a positive conductor made of iron wire (99.5% iron, with traces of manganese and copper) and a negative conductor composed of a constantan alloy wire (a combination of 55% copper, 45% nickel, and traces of cobalt, iron, and manganese).
Its usefulness is limited by a relatively narrow temperature range and a shorter lifespan at elevated temperatures.
The positive conductor, being made of iron, has a Curie point at 770 °C (1418 °F), defining the temperature range of type J (in Class 1) between -40 °C and 750 °C (-40 °F to 1382 °F).
The type-J thermocouple is particularly suitable for use in vacuum, inert, and reducing environments, while its use in oxidizing atmospheres above 550 °C (1022 °F) is not recommended. This is because iron undergoes irreversible molecular changes, permanently compromising its standard output voltage in relation to temperature, with no recovery during cooling.
The maximum continuous operating temperature is approximately 800 °C (1472 °F), although temperatures up to 1000 °C (1832 °F) can be managed for short periods.
The sensitivity of type J is around 50 microvolts per degree C.
From an economic and reliability standpoint, the type-J thermocouple is comparable to the type K thermocouple.
The J-type thermocouple is widely used in various sectors, including industrial, scientific, food and medical, thanks to its remarkable versatility.
This device is suitable for a wide range of applications, including high temperature environments and atmospheres characterized by vacuum, oxidation (air), reduction or inertia (inert gases).
In the industrial context, the type-J thermocouple proves particularly useful in monitoring temperatures during manufacturing processes such as the production of plastic materials and resins.
Additionally, it also proves effective in environments involving poorly reactive inert materials, such as sand, cement or substances containing asbestos.
Type J thermocouples are available in different types and constructions, to suit a wide range of applications.
Due to the high oxidation of the type J positive part (iron) of the wire at temperatures above 540 °C (1000 °F), it is advisable to use wires with a larger diameter to counterbalance this phenomenon.
Additionally, the iron wire may experience rust and brittleness at temperatures below zero. Without adequate protection, an atmosphere containing ammonia, nitrogen, and hydrogen can corrode it.
As a result, the use of stainless-steel metal sheaths with MgO insulation is recommended, representing a preferable choice over a simple thermocouple construction.
The recommended maximum operating temperature is 760 °C (1400 °F). Avoid using type J in sulfurous atmospheres exceeding 540 °C (1004 °F).
Furthermore, it is not recommended for use at temperatures above 760 °C (1400 °F), as a sudden magnetic transformation would cause permanent calibration issues.
To prevent confusion, it is important to note that type J wire can be mistakenly exchanged with normal red and white copper wire. In case of uncertainty, verification with a magnet is advised: iron wire is strongly magnetic, unlike copper wire.
In summary, the J-type thermocouple presents itself as a convenient, stable, durable and versatile solution to meet the various thermal measurement needs in many industries.
In type J thermocouples, MgO mineral oxide insulation stands out as the primary choice due to its numerous advantageous characteristics.
Among these, the fast response, small size, wide temperature range, durability, precision, resistance to thermal shock and vibration make it an ideal choice for virtually all laboratory or industrial process applications.
Regarding initial calibration tolerances, MgO insulation offers excellent performance over the temperature range of 0 °C to 750°C (32 °F to 1382 °F).
Its typical tolerance is in the Standard class, which is at +2.2 °C (35.96 °F) or +0.75%, making it a perfect fit for type J thermocouples, ensuring precise and reliable measurements.
The Type-K thermocouple and the Type-J thermocouple share many similarities, both being characterized by versatility, reliability, and cost-effectiveness. However, their applications do not overlap as often as it might appear, as they have some substantial differences.
The Type K thermocouple is recommended for high temperature uses, corrosive environments and situations where the cable is exposed to oxidation, including humid environments and environments immersed in water. The Type K is the most widespread in the production and industrial sector thanks to its reliability and cost-effectiveness.
The J-Type thermocouple is the best choice at lower temperatures, with a range starting from -40°C, making it ideal also for vacuum applications.
For all other situations that do not specifically fall within these criteria, either the K-Type or J-Type thermocouple can be used, provided the appropriate temperature range is met.
In short, the substantial differences between J-type thermocouple and K-type thermocouple are:
– Type J: usually used in a range from approximately -210 °C to +750 °C (-346 °F to 1382 °F).
– Type K: wider operating range, from approximately -270°C to +1300° C (-454 to 2372 °F).
Ambient temperature sensitivity:
– Type J thermocouple has higher sensitivity than type K at room temperatures.
– Type J: suitable for vacuum applications and reducing atmospheres. Good for moderate temperatures.
– Type K: widely used in a variety of applications, including higher temperatures and diverse atmospheric conditions.
– The J-type thermocouple has a faster response than the K-type.
– Type K thermocouple is more resistant to oxidation compared to the Type J.
– Type J: suitable for applications where the cable is subject to oxidation.
– Type K: used in corrosive environments and high-temperature applications.
– In the J-type thermocouple the thermo-electromotive force is 20% greater than in the K-type thermocouple.